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 1 Cor. 15:10a​
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​Father and Child


After Paul’s separation from Barnabas, Paul chose another to travel with him. What Paul did not realize is that God had a different understudy to stand alongside of him and with him as he carried the Gospel of Grace to the world.

Acts 15:40-41
And Paul chose Silas, and departed, being recommended by the brethren unto the grace of God. And he went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches.

Silas was a prophet and one of the chef men among the leadership in Jerusalem. He came to Antioch in Syria, with Paul and Barnabas and other leaders, after the Council in Jerusalem. Silas exhorted (parakaleo) and confirmed (episterizo) those who believed in Antioch, saying, circumcision was not a godly necessity. 

When other leaders, that had come from Jerusalem returned to Jerusalem, Silas determined to stay in Antioch continuing to edify the believers. God describes Silas as a faithful man. Then, due to the separation between Paul and Barnabas, Paul chose Silas to accompany him as he planned to return to Galatia.

Paul will begin his second missionary journey with Silas, when this second journey is completed, it will have covered about 2,700 miles. The route Paul and Silas will be taking is different from the first journey. Since Barnabas and John Mark are headed for Cyprus, Paul and Silas are taking the back door into southern Galatia, through the Cilician Gates. 

The Cilician Gates rise to almost 4,000 feet to a pass through the Taurus Mountains that connect the Cilician Plain with the Central Anatolian Plateau, which is the location of Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch in Pisidia. This route will bring Paul through his hometown of Tarsus as they approach the gates. 

Their goal was to confirm (episterizo), or strengthen, to establish the disciples in the Gospel of Grace. We have seen the pressure the Adversary has brought to bear on those who believe the Gospel of Grace in Antioch in Pisidia, and Iconium, and Lystra. Yet, this new doctrine was not yet written, they have only heard it from Paul. To sit with Paul and hear it again is important.

“Churches” is the Greek word ekklesia, which means an assembly of people that have been called out for a reason or a purpose. In Acts 15 the assembly was a Council meeting in Jerusalem, while in Acts 19 the assembly was a union meeting (Acts 19:24-25). The purpose of the assemblies, or churches, in southern Galatia were to gather around the Word of God that Paul had taught them on his first journey in Galatia.

Acts 16:1-2
Then came he to Derbe and Lystra: and behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman, which was a Jewess, and believed; but his father was a Greek: which [who] was well reported of by the brethren that were at Lystra and Iconium.

First, you can see the reverse order having come through the Cilician Gates and how Acts 15 states that they went into Syria and then Cilicia confirming the churches. It is always worth the time to stop and marvel at the accuracy and integrity of God’s Word. 

When something is out of place with God’s Word, we need to understand if it was simply translated incorrectly or if we are misunderstanding what we are reading. It will never be God’s Word that is in error. It will be the person reading God’s Word, or the ones who translated God’s Word.

Psalm 19:7-11
The law [instruction] of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring forever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb. Moreover, by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.

In 2 Timothy 3:16 we have read that God breathed, God has spoken, you need to breath to speak. God has spoken the scriptures, so that, the person standing on and believing those words could be perfect (2 Timothy 3:17). 

“Man’s basic spiritual problem is not believing the integrity of the Word of God.” 

Proverbs 30:5-6
Every word of God is pure: he is a shield unto them that put their trust in him. Add thou not unto his words, lest he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar.

When a man declares that Peter gave Mark the gospel he wrote, it is a man who follows tradition rather than believing the integrity of God’s Word. When theology finds the Gospel of Grace in the Gospels or the Old Testament, theology ignores that it was a secret hidden in God until revealed to Paul. If someone denies the integrity of God’s Word, that person has no business speaking of God’s Word. 

Proverbs declared, do not add to God’s Word or you will be found a liar. Revelation chapter 22 speaks of neither adding nor subtracting to the words of God. Although neither Proverbs nor Revelation are addressed to those who believe in our administration, God has set the principle. 


Next, in Acts chapter 16, we are introduced to Timothy and then his mother. We will get to Timothy in a few minutes, first let’s consider his mother.

2 Timothy 1:5
When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also.

God speaks of the “unfeigned faith” of Timothy’s grandmother and mother. “Unfeigned” is anupokritos in the Greek. Anupokritos means not hypocritical, without hypocrisy, not phony. In other words, genuine and authentic. Faith is again pistis, meaning believing.

Timothy, his mother, and his grandmother had genuine believing toward God. Again, everyone has believing but these three placed their trust, or confidence, in what God had said or promised. 

But what exactly does that mean?

The Pharisees had believing, but it was in their traditions, rejecting the words Jesus taught, and the words Peter taught, and the words that Paul taught. Timothy’s mother and grandmother had genuine believing in the words Paul had taught when he was in Lystra. God did not record what Paul taught in Lystra, but we know Paul had spoken of God’s goodness and Justification in Antioch in Pisidia, and ministered healing in Lystra, and spoke of the goodness of God after they tried to make him a god.

People need to hear about the goodness of God. That is what leads men to repentance. People have heard enough about the anger of God and the wrath of God; it is time people learn about the grace of God and the goodness of God. 

Too often this, God’s grace and goodness, is belittled as a prosperity gospel. Those who push God’s goodness and grace aside say we need to preach sin and God’s wrath, a fear of hell. God has handled the sin problem with the death and resurrection of His son Jesus Christ. Now, God wants His prosperity of Justification and Righteousness proclaimed throughout the land. This is believing the integrity of God’s Word!

Now, let’s consider Timothy. Timothy, being from Lystra, would be aware of Paul preaching at the city gate, and the miraculous healing of the lame man, and the offer and refusal of deity, and the stoning with the miraculous healing of the Apostle Paul. Add to that, Timothy had the witness, the example of believing of his grandmother and his mother.

Acts 16:3
Him [Timothy] would Paul have to go forth with him; and took and circumcised him because of the Jews which were in those quarters: for they knew all that his father was a Greek.

Acts 16:3
Paul wanted Timothy to go with him, so he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those places, since they all knew that his father was a Greek.
Holman Christian Standard Bible

Why the circumcision? Because of the unbelieving Judeans. We have already seen the trouble the unbelieving Judeans had caused in Antioch in Pisidia, and in Iconium, and in Lystra. Timothy’s circumcision was not a point of salvation, as with Titus in Acts 15, this was to expand the ministry of Timothy. This then allows Timothy to be able to preach in a synagogue.

Knowing what God inspired Paul to write in 1 Timothy 4, raises a question about the age of Timothy in Acts 16.

1 Timothy 4:12
Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity.

In the Judean culture you were not considered a man until the age of thirty. Here is 1 Timothy 4 God informs us that Timothy is still under thirty years of age as he is considered a “youth.” The first epistle to Timothy is written after Paul’s imprisonment in Acts 28.

In approximately 63 A.D. Paul’s imprisonment in Rome was ended and Paul begins his fourth journey with his main concern this time being leadership. Although, without having the book of Acts as a guide we need to consider his movements logically.

The areas mentioned where Paul traveled after Acts 28 are Ephesus, Macedonia, Crete, Nicopolis, and possibly Colosse. My logical progression is Crete, then Ephesus, then Colosse, then Macedonia, then Nicopolis, then back to Rome.

Paul would have departed Rome in the Spring of 63 A.D., when the weather allows sailing on the Mediterranean Sea to begin once again.

Titus 1:5
For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee:

Paul leaves Titus in Crete to ordain elders in every city and to set things in order. Then, Paul moves on to Ephesus.

1 Timothy 1:3
As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other doctrine,

Paul leaves Timothy in Ephesus, but while he is at Ephesus there is the possibility that he visits Colosse.

Philemon 1:22
But withal prepare me also a lodging: for I trust that through your prayers I shall be given unto you.

Paul writes to Philemon in Acts 28 while he is still in Rome under house arrest. After a visit with his friend Philemon, Paul goes to Macedonia. Then, from Macedonia, Paul writes his first letter back to Timothy in approximately 64 A.D. Paul also writes his letter to Titus from Macedonia. It is in Paul’s letter to Titus we see that Paul knew of the trouble in Rome.

Rome catches fire on the night of July 18, 64 A.D. and burns for at least three days. Of the 15 districts within the city of Rome four are destroyed, although all 15 districts receive at least some damage. Before July comes to a close Nero had blamed the fire on Christians and a persecution began. There was no evidence that the Christians in Rome started the fire, but rumors about Nero being involved had to be stopped. So, Nero redirected the anger of Romans to the Christians.

Titus 3:12
When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, be diligent to come unto me to Nicopolis: for I have determined there to winter.

Paul has asked Titus to come to him. He will send another leader to Crete to take over Titus’ responsibilities. Paul then travels from Macedonia to the west side of Achaia, to the city of Nicopolis, where he intends to spend the winter. It will be the Spring of 65 A.D. before Paul can travel to Rome.

Paul asks Titus to bring a few others with himself.

Titus 3:13
Bring Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their journey diligently, that nothing be wanting unto them.

Paul is asking for a lawyer and Apollos, the orator we will meet in Ephesus, in Acts 18. From this we can see that Paul intends to travel to Rome to stand with and to defend the Christians under persecution. 

The point of showing you Paul’s fourth journey was to establish the date of the writing of 1 Timothy. Paul is writing 1 Timothy chapter 4 about Timothy’s youth, under 30 years old, about 13 years after Acts chapter 16, or 64 A.D. Even if Timothy were 29 years old at the time of 1 Timothy, it would make Timothy about 16 years old in Acts 16 when he begins to travel with Paul. While still a teenager, the Apostle Paul begins to teach Timothy how to be a man for God.

Paul chose Silas, but it will be Timothy that stands by Paul’s side, moving the greatness of God’s Word, for the rest of Paul’s life. The relationship that develops between Paul and Timothy is one every believer should aspire to with other believers.

I understand there are no real comparisons between the world of Timothy, around 51 A.D. and our world of 2022 A.D. But consider, a boy, at most, in the middle of his teen years, leaving home to travel with two men. One he has only seen briefly about a year ago, and the other he has never seen before. Timothy had to have genuine believing in God. Such fearlessness, and maturity, and commitment, from anyone is awesome and inspiring to behold. But once again God shows us these qualities in the life of a teenager.

Timothy has no idea where he is going.
Timothy has no idea when, or even if, he will return.

Timothy has probably never traveled beyond Iconium, some 30 miles away, if he has even traveled that far. Timothy is willing to go forth, to carry a message that he has seen has power and deliverance.

Timothy was willing to follow in the footsteps of the man who would become his father in the Gospel of God’s grace. He has genuine believing, authentic trust in the God Paul has preached.

1 Timothy 1:2
Unto Timothy, my own son in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord.

1 Timothy 1:2
To Timothy, my true child in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.
English Standard Version

The text reads Christ Jesus verses Jesus Christ.

The word translated “son” is the Greek word teknon. Teknon is better translated child and speaks of a relationship based in tender love, it is a heart relationship, an endearing relationship. This relationship between Paul and Timothy was founded in pistis, believing. 

The Greeks use the word huios for son. Huios speaks to the dignity of the family of which you are a member.

Galatians 4:6-7
And because ye are sons [huios], God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son [huios] into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son [huios]; and if a son [huios], then an heir of God through Christ.

God has adopted us into His family.

Ephesus 5:1
Be ye therefore followers [mimetes = imitators] of God, as dear children [teknon].

1 Thessalonians 2:7-8
But we were gentle among you, even as a nurse cherisheth her children [teknon]: so being affectionately desirous of you, we were willing to have imparted unto you, not the gospel of God only, but also our own souls [psyche], because ye were dear unto us.

1 Thessalonians 2:11
As ye know how we exhorted [parakaleo = to call alongside to encourage] and comforted [paramytheomai = to call alongside to present a narrative and thus calm] and charged [martyreo = testified to] every one of you, as a father doth his children [teknon],

Look at the relationship between a parent and a child, a teknon. Paul called the Thessalonian’s to his side to encourage them, to give them the narrative of what God accomplished through His son, as a father teaches and encourages his dear children. As God teaches and encourages us as His dear children.

We are now not only in God’s family, huios, we are also God’s children, teknon. As we learn and grow in God’s Word, we can imitate our Heavenly Father. Over time Timothy learned and knew the heart of Paul, his father in God’s Word. 

1 Corinthians 4:15-17
For though ye have ten thousand instructers in Christ yet have ye not many fathers: for in Christ Jesus, I have begotten you through the gospel. Wherefore I beseech you, be ye followers [mimetes = imitator] of me. For this cause have I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved [agapetos = esteemed] son [teknon], and faithful in the Lord, who shall bring you into remembrance of my ways which be in Christ, as I teach everywhere in every church.

1 Corinthians was written between 54 and 57 A.D., when Paul was in Ephesus, three to six years after Timothy began to travel with Paul. Timothy would be in his late teens to early twenties at this point in time. Paul is sending Timothy to Corinth so he can bring to their remembrance Paul’s ways, his conduct or behavior, in Christ. By this time, Timothy knows the heart and life of Paul. Look at the confidence Paul has in this young man, his teknon, to communicate his heart in Christ.

2 Timothy 3:10-11a
But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience, persecutions, afflictions…

Timothy learned the heart of Paul and imitated him. Timothy was Paul’s ambassador to Corinth. As we learn the heart of our Heavenly Father, we can imitate Him because we are God’s family, huios, and His children, teknon.

2 Corinthians 5:19-20
To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God.

We are also ambassadors.

Those who believed in Thessalonica suffered great persecution because of God’s Word.

1 Thessalonians 1:6
And ye became followers [mimetes = imitators] of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Ghost.

The word affliction is thlipsis in the Greek. It means mental pressure. It refers to the stress the unbelievers were putting on those who believed.

How could Paul trust Timothy to be his ambassador? Because Timothy was faithful in the Lord. 

Philippians 2:19-22
But I trust in the Lord Jesus to send Timotheus shortly unto you, that I also may be of good comfort, when I know your state. For I have no man likeminded, who will naturally care for your state. For all seek their own, not the things which are Jesus Christ's. But ye know the proof of him, that, as a son [teknon] with the father, he hath served with me in the gospel.

Wow! Read those words again, taking your time and allowing the relationship between Paul and Timothy to be absorbed into your heart. 

In the middle of these verses, we have the Greek word isopsychos. It is a compound Greek word from isos which means equal in quality and psyche, which speaks of your life, it is the very essence of who you are. It is translated “likeminded” in verse 20 but would better be translated equal-souled.

Paul and Timothy’s hearts and lives are so aligned that there is no one except Timothy, or Paul, who can care for them. Timothy cared for the state of those in Philippi because he cared for the things that pertained to Jesus Christ. When Paul needed to know what was going on in a certain area, he sent Timothy. When Paul wanted an area to know what was going on with him, he sent Timothy.

2 Timothy 3:10-11
But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience, Persecutions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra; what persecutions I endured: but out of them all the Lord delivered me.

Paul and Timothy traveled together for about 16 years, from Lystra until the end of Paul’s life. They were equal-souled, brothers in Christ, standing side by side for the glory of God and the movement of God’s Gospel of Grace.

God is your Father, you are His child. Now you can become equal-souled with God through your renewed mind. Enjoy your spiritual journey.

©  Auxano Ministry 2022

A Journey through the Book of Acts